Defence and security procurement spending was an estimated US$1,676 billion in 2015. The figure was up about 1 per cent from the previous year and was the first increase since 2011, and that was with modest declines in North American and Western Europe. One need only scan the headlines to understand why. With tensions rising between NATO and Russia and between the Pacific states and China, asymmetrical terrorist threats continuing to be very active in North Africa and the Middle East as well as Western Europe and North America, new countries continuing to push to enter the ranks of the nuclear powers, and the proliferation of both state-sponsored and ideologically driven advanced persistent threats in cyberspace, nations are attempting to keep pace with these ever-increasing threats. The recent decline in oil prices has also had a significant impact, simultaneously weakening economies depending on oil sales while creating further destabilisation in some of the world’s most volatile regions.