The past year has seen a number of legislative developments in the Cayman Islands. In addition, transparency and information exchange remain a top focus for the jurisdiction.
Beneficial ownership register
Following lengthy discussions with the UK authorities, the Cayman Islands government approved legislation to introduce beneficial ownership registers for certain Cayman Islands companies in 2017.
Essentially, Cayman companies that are subject to some form of direct or indirect regulatory oversight are likely to be exempt from the requirements to maintain a beneficial ownership register.
For the investment funds industry, this means that companies structured as Cayman Islands investment funds, whether hedge funds or private equity funds, Cayman Islands investment managers registered as ‘excluded persons’ under the SIB Law, and general partners of private equity funds or other investment funds, will not have to maintain beneficial ownership registers provided they fall within one of several exemptions contained in the legislation.
There are currently no proposals to extend the registers to cover beneficial ownership of limited partners of Cayman Islands exempted limited partnerships or foreign companies and foreign limited liability companies registered in the Cayman Islands.
The UK authorities will be able to request that a search of information held on registers be done by the competent authority in the Cayman Islands. The register will otherwise be private and confidential and not open to public inspection. The UK has introduced legislation requiring the Cayman Islands to make such registers publicly available. The Cayman Islands government has indicated that it will not accept such measures.
Anti-Money Laundering Regulations (the AML Regulations)
Changes have been made to the Cayman Islands AML regime to bring Cayman in line with international best practice. The main change for investment funds is the requirement to appoint natural persons as a money laundering reporting officer (MLRO), deputy money laundering reporting officer (DMLRO) and AML compliance officer (AMLCO). Although performance of these functions can still be delegated to an administrator or another service provider, this change means that most funds will now need to appoint natural persons to these roles and then review their fund administration agreements to ensure that the delegation of the function is dealt with and update their documentation and procedures regarding AML compliance generally.
Unregulated funds: now explicitly subject to AML regulations
Unregulated funds (eg, hedge funds exempt from registration with CIMA or private equity funds) will need to comply with the PCL and the AML Regulations with effect from 31 May 2018.
In practice, unregulated funds will achieve AML compliance in much the same way that funds regulated by the Mutual Funds Law have done to date, namely by delegating these functions to a service provider, such as a regulated administrator or investment manager.
The most straightforward option available is to delegate to an administrator or investment manager that is regulated for AML purposes in a recognised jurisdiction (eg, Cayman Islands, Bermuda or Ireland), with equivalent standards to the AML Regulations. In such cases, compliance by the delegate with its jurisdiction’s regulations would be sufficient to ensure that the Cayman-based fund is compliant with its obligations, provided the fund has appointed natural persons as a MLRO, DMLRO and AMLCO before it delegates these functions, as described below.
All funds: the role of the MLRO, DMLRO and AMLCO
The AML Regulations, Guidance Notes issued in December 2017 and a notice issued by CIMA in April 2018 now require all funds that are subject to the AML Regulations to designate natural persons as their MLRO, DMLRO and AMLCO. Once natural persons have been appointed, performance of these functions can then be delegated to a third party, such as the fund’s administrator.
Funds can continue to delegate the function of reporting suspicious activities to their administrator in accordance with their own regulatory obligations once they have appointed these individuals. New funds registering with CIMA from 1 June 2018 will need to confirm who has been appointed to these roles as part of the registration process. Existing registered funds have until 30 September 2018 to confirm who has been appointed, via a filing on CIMA’s portal.
For those funds that now need to appoint an MLRO, DMLRO and AMLCO, these are management level roles and the responsibilities of the MLRO and DMLRO are substantial and include assessing reports of suspicious activity in relation to money laundering or terrorist financing and determining whether to report such suspicious activity to the Cayman Islands Financial Reporting Authority. Where the fund does not have its own employees (which will be the case for most funds), the Guidance Notes detail the criteria that should be applied in selecting an appropriate person to fill each role and provide guidance on the delegation and outsourcing decision making process.
Revised regulations regarding accepting subscription payments from bank accounts located in regulated jurisdictions
Until the new regime was adopted, for AML purposes, funds and their administrators had not been obliged to obtain full know your customer (KYC) documentation from investors whose accounts are held in their name at a bank regulated in an equivalent AML jurisdiction, on the basis that the appropriate due diligence had been undertaken by the bank.
As part of the overarching risk-based approach that is now key to the AML regime, the AML Regulations require that, before the fund receives subscription monies from an investor’s account held at a regulated bank, the fund (or its delegate) will need to: conduct an assessment of the level of risk relating to the investor (eg, low, medium or high) and have identified the risk as low; and have identified the customer and its beneficial owner and assessed whether or not full KYC documentation or further information is required. CIMA has confirmed that the Guidance Notes are also being amended to clarify these provisions. In reality, very few fund administrators relied on the previous exemption and obtained full KYC documentation from all investors regardless. Where that may not have been the case, the practical consequence of this will be that some investors in Cayman Islands funds will be required to provide full KYC documentation in more situations than previously.
Substantial administrative fines for breaches of the AML Regulations
Amendments to the Monetary Authority Law and associated regulations came into force on 15 December 2017, giving CIMA increased powers to impose administrative fines for breaches of certain regulatory laws. These fines can initially be imposed for breaches of the AML Regulations, with a maximum fine of up to US$1,219,500.
CIMA must classify breaches as minor, serious or very serious, and will apply these criteria when it exercises its discretion to impose fines. The minimum fine for a breach considered to be ‘minor’ is US$6,098.
Once further regulations under the Monetary Authority Law are adopted, we fully expect CIMA to use these new powers to take increased action for breaches of all regulatory laws, including the Mutual Funds Law and the SIB Law (eg, failure to make filings within time limits without applying for exemptions or extensions).
New tax offence in the Cayman Islands related to AML
Changes to the Cayman Islands Penal Code (the law that contains most criminal offences in the Cayman Islands) mean that a new criminal tax offence has been introduced into Cayman Islands law. It is now a criminal offence when a person, with intent to defraud the Cayman Islands government:
- wilfully makes, delivers or causes false or fraudulent information to be made to a person employed in the public service relating to the collection of money for the purposes of general revenue;
- wilfully omits information required to be provided to a person employed in the public service relating to the collection of money for the purposes of general revenue; or
- wilfully obstructs, hinders, intimidates or resists a person employed in the public service in the collection of money for the purposes of general revenue.
Without any specific punishment provided, the offence will be punishable with imprisonment for four years and with a fine.
The main offence of tax evasion is likely to be of limited applicability given the lack of direct taxation in the Cayman Islands. The real impact of the new offence is part of the Cayman Islands AML framework because overseas tax evasion is now ‘criminal conduct’ and the proceeds of such conduct would be the proceeds of crime. The PCL requires ‘dual criminality’ for offences that are not committed in the Cayman Islands in that the conduct must not only be an offence in the place where it is committed (if not the Cayman Islands) but must also be an offence in the Cayman Islands in order for it to be criminal conduct. Failure to make the required disclosure, when a person knows or suspects or has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting that another person is engaged in criminal conduct (eg, tax evasion overseas), in the absence of any defence, is punishable with imprisonment or a fine or both.
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