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  • 1.

    Overview
    How has the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) developed in your jurisdiction? What types of transactions are permitted and commonly used in your jurisdiction?

  • 2.

    Covered categories
    What categories of public infrastructure are subject to PPP transactions in your jurisdiction?

  • 3.

    Legislative framework
    Is there a legislative framework for PPPs in your jurisdiction, or are PPPs undertaken pursuant to general government powers as one-off transactions?

  • 4.

    Relevant authority
    Is there a centralised PPP authority or may each agency carry out its own programme?

  • 5.

    Procurement
    Are PPPs procured only at the national level or may state, municipal or other subdivision government bodies enter into PPPs?

  • 6.

    Remuneration
    How is the private party in a PPP remunerated in your jurisdiction?

  • 7.

    Sharing revenue and usage risk
    May revenue risk or usage risk be shared between the private party and the government? How is risk shared?

  • 8.

    Government payment obligations
    In situations where the private party is compensated in whole or in part through availability or other periodic payments from the government, are the payment obligations of the government subject to the relevant legislative body approving budgetary funding in the future?

  • 9.

    Rate of return caps
    Is there any cap on the rate of return that may be earned by the private party in the PPP transaction?

  • 10.

    Restriction of ownership transfer
    Is the transfer of direct or indirect ownership interests in the project company or other participants restricted?

  • 11.

    Relevant procedure
    What procedures normally apply to a PPP procurement? What evaluation criteria are used to award a PPP transaction?

  • 12.

    Consideration of deviating proposals
    May the government consider proposals to deviate from the scope or technical characteristics of the work included in the procurement documentation during the procurement process, without altering such terms with respect to other proponents? How are such deviations assessed?

  • 13.

    Unsolicited proposals
    May government parties consider unsolicited proposals for PPP transactions? How are these evaluated?

  • 14.

    Government stipend
    Does the government party provide a stipend for unsuccessful short-listed proponents or otherwise bear a portion of their costs?

  • 15.

    Financing commitments
    Does the government party require that proposals include financing commitments for the PPP transaction? If it does not, are there any mechanisms during the procurement process to ensure that the applicable PPP transaction, once awarded, is financeable?

  • 16.

    Legal opinion
    May the government ask its counsel to provide a legal opinion on the enforceability of the PPP agreement? May it provide representations as to the enforceability of the PPP agreement?

  • 17.

    Restrictions on foreign entities
    Are there restrictions on participation in PPP projects by foreign entities? May foreign entities exercise control over the project company?

  • 18.

    Form of contract
    Does local law mandate that any particular form of contract govern design and construction activities? Does it mandate the choice of governing law?

  • 19.

    Design defect liability
    Does local law impose liability for design defects and, if so, on what terms?

  • 20.

    Warranties
    Does local law require the inclusion of specific warranties? Are there implied warranties in cases where the relevant contract is silent? Does local law mandate or regulate the duration of warranties?

  • 21.

    Damages for delay
    Are liquidated damages for delay in construction enforceable? Are certain penalty clauses unenforceable?

  • 22.

    Indirect or consequential damages
    What restrictions are imposed by local law on the contractor’s ability to limit or disclaim liability for indirect or consequential damages?

  • 23.

    Non-payment
    May a contractor suspend performance for non-payment?

  • 24.

    Applicable clauses
    Does local law restrict ‘pay if paid’ or ‘paid when paid’ clauses?

  • 25.


    Are ‘equivalent project relief’ clauses enforceable under local law?

  • 26.

    Expansion of scope of work
    May the government party decide unilaterally to expand the scope of work under the PPP agreement?

  • 27.

    Rebalancing agreements
    Does local law entitle either party to have a PPP agreement ‘rebalanced’ or set aside if it becomes unduly burdensome owing to unforeseen events? Can this be agreed to by the parties?

  • 28.

    Liens laws
    Are statutory lien laws applicable to construction work performed in connection with a PPP agreement?

  • 29.

    Other relevant provisions
    Are there any other material provisions related to design and construction work that PPP agreements must address?

  • 30.

    Performance obligations
    Are private parties’ obligations during the operating period required to be defined in detail or may the PPP agreement set forth performance criteria?

  • 31.

    Failure to maintain
    Are liquidated damages payable, or are deductions from availability payments possible, for the private party’s failure to operate and maintain the facility as agreed?

  • 32.

    Refurbishment of vacated facilities
    Are there any legal or customary requirements that facilities be refurbished before they are handed back to the government party at the end of the term? (To what degree must facilities be refurbished?)

  • 33.

    Delay
    How is the risk of delays in commercial or financial closing customarily allocated between the parties?

  • 34.


    How is the risk of delay in obtaining the necessary permits customarily allocated between the parties?

  • 35.

    Force majeure
    How are force majeure and geotechnical, environmental and weather risks customarily allocated between the parties? Is force majeure treated as a general concept relating to acts outside the parties’ control or is it defined with reference to specific enumerated events?

  • 36.

    Third-party risk
    How is risk for acts of third parties customarily allocated between parties to a PPP agreement?

  • 37.

    Political, legal and macroeconomic risks
    How are political, legal and macroeconomic risks customarily allocated between the parties? What protection is afforded to the private party against discriminatory change of law or regulation?

  • 38.

    Mitigating events
    What events entitle the private party to extensions of time to perform its obligations?

  • 39.


    What events entitle the private party to additional compensation?

  • 40.

    Compensation
    How is compensation calculated and paid?

  • 41.

    Insurance
    Are there any legal or customary requirements for project agreements to specify a programme of insurance? Which party mandatorily or customarily bears the risk of insurance becoming unavailable on commercially reasonable terms?

  • 42.

    Remedies
    What remedies are available to the government party for breach by the private party?

  • 43.

    Termination
    On what grounds may the PPP agreement be terminated?

  • 44.


    Is there a possibility of termination for convenience?

  • 45.


    If the PPP agreement is terminated, is compensation available?

  • 46.

    Government financing
    Does the government provide debt financing or guarantees for PPP projects? On what terms? Which agencies are responsible?

  • 47.

    Privity of contract
    Are lenders afforded privity of contract with the government party through direct agreements or similar mechanisms? What rights will lenders typically have under these agreements?

  • 48.

    Step-in rights
    Is there a mechanism under which lenders may exercise step-in rights or take over the PPP project? Are lenders able to obtain a security interest in the PPP agreement itself?

  • 49.

    Cure rights
    Are lenders expressly afforded cure rights beyond those available to the project company or are they permitted to cure only during the same period and under the same conditions as the project company?

  • 50.

    Refinancing
    If the private party refinances the PPP project at a lower cost of funds, is there any requirement that the gains from such refinancing be shared with the government? Are there any restrictions on refinancing?

  • 51.

    Local law governance
    What key project agreements must be governed by local law?

  • 52.

    Government immunity
    Under local law, what immunities does the government party enjoy in PPP transactions? Which of these immunities can be waived by the government?

  • 53.

    Availability of arbitration
    Is arbitration available to settle disputes under the project agreement between the government and the private party? If not, what regime applies?

  • 54.

    Alternative dispute resolution
    Is there a requirement to enter into mediation or other preliminary dispute resolution procedures as a condition to seeking arbitration or other binding resolution?

  • 55.

    Special mechanisms
    Is there a special mechanism to deal with technical disputes?

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