Driving global coordination and convergence in international cartel enforcement
Globalisation is the overarching theme of modern antitrust cartel enforcement. Once stubborn cultural attitudes regarding cartel activity are now gradually shifting. Many jurisdictions have moved to give their competition authorities broad jurisdictional reach and aggressive investigative tools, such as wiretap authority and compulsory process. There is also a burgeoning movement to criminalise cartel activity in places where it has previously been regarded as wholly or principally a civil matter. And the growing use of leniency programmes has worked to radically destabilise global cartels, creating powerful incentives for institutions to turn against their co-conspirators.