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Air Transport

Published: October 2018


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  • 1.

    Which bodies regulate aviation in your country, under what basic laws?

  • 2.

    How is air transport regulated in terms of safety?

  • 3.

    What safety regulation is provided for air operations that do not constitute public or commercial transport, and how is the distinction made?

  • 4.

    Is access to the market for the provision of air transport services regulated, and if so how?

  • 5.

    What requirements apply in the areas of financial fitness and nationality of ownership regarding control of air carriers?

  • 6.

    What procedures are there to obtain licences or other rights to operate particular routes?

  • 7.

    What procedures are there for hearing or deciding contested applications for licences or other rights to operate particular routes?

  • 8.

    Is there a declared policy on airline access or competition, and if so what is it?

  • 9.

    What requirements must a foreign air carrier satisfy in order to operate to or from your country?

  • 10.

    Are there specific rules in place to ensure aviation services are offered to remote destinations when vital for the local economy?

  • 11.

    Are charter services specially regulated?

  • 12.

    Are airfares regulated, and if so, how?

  • 13.

    Are there any rules regulating the operation of unmanned aircraft systems (drones)?

  • 14.

    Who is entitled to be mentioned in the aircraft register? Do requirements or limitations apply to the ownership of an aircraft listed on your country’s register?

  • 15.

    Is there a register of aircraft mortgages or charges, and if so how does it function?

  • 16.

    What rights are there to detain aircraft, in respect of unpaid airport or air navigation charges, or other unpaid debts?

  • 17.

    Do specific rules regulate the maintenance of aircraft?

  • 18.

    Who owns the airports?

  • 19.

    What system is there for the licensing of airports?

  • 20.

    Is there a system of economic regulation of airports, and, if so, how does it function?

  • 21.

    Are there laws or rules restricting or qualifying access to airports?

  • 22.

    How are slots allocated at congested airports?

  • 23.

    Are there any laws or rules specifically relating to ground handling?

  • 24.

    Who provides air traffic control services? And how are they regulated?

  • 25.

    Are there any special rules in respect of death of, or injury to, passengers or loss or damage to baggage or cargo in respect of domestic carriage?

  • 26.

    Are there any special rules about the liability of aircraft operators for surface damage?

  • 27.

    What system and procedures are in place for the investigation of air accidents?

  • 28.

    Is there a mandatory accident and incident reporting system, and if so, how does it operate?

  • 29.

    Do sector-specific competition rules apply to aviation? If not, do the general competition law rules apply?

  • 30.

    Is there a sector-specific regulator or are competition rules applied by the general competition authority?

  • 31.

    How is the relevant market for the purposes of a competition assessment in the aviation sector defined by the competition authorities?

  • 32.

    What are the main standards for assessing the competitive effect of a transaction?

  • 33.

    What types of remedies have been imposed to remedy concerns identified by the competition authorities?

  • 34.

    Are there sector-specific rules regulating direct or indirect financial support to companies by the government or government-controlled agencies or companies (state aid) in the aviation sector? If not, do general state aid rules apply?

  • 35.

    What are the main principles of the state aid rules applicable to the aviation sector?

  • 36.

    Are there exemptions from the state aid rules or situations in which they do not apply?

  • 37.

    Must clearance from the competition authorities be obtained before state aid may be granted?

  • 38.

    If so, what are the main procedural steps to obtain clearance?

  • 39.

    If no clearance is obtained, what procedures apply to recover unlawfully granted state aid?

  • 40.

    Is there any aviation-specific passenger protection legislation?

  • 41.

    Are there mandatory insurance requirements for the operators of aircraft?

  • 42.

    What legal requirements are there with regard to aviation security?

  • 43.

    What serious crimes exist with regard to aviation?

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